白富美:深入了解中国人对白皙皮肤的追求

以下是我对学术论文的改编 在西安出国读书时写的’中国,2012年夏天。 

What's the deal with skin 白色ning?

One of the major academic components when studying with the Alliance is the capstone. This capstone project is an academic research project on an aspect of Chinese culture you find very interesting. For this project, you must do a presentation and write a roughly 10 page paper. My paper was on skin 白色ning in 中国.

In 中国, very 白色, pale skin is considered beautiful, and girls will do just about anything to keep their skin fair. This includes everything from skin 白色ning products to 太阳伞s to facial bleaching procedures.

白富美:

深入了解中国人寻求更明亮,更白皙的皮肤

 

随着中国天气开始越来越暖和,我注意到中国女性有许多异常行为。我在街上看到带太阳伞的妇女和在沙滩上有长裤的毛衣。来自美国,一个有着日光浴场的国家,这种对保持白皙皮肤的关注,甚至以牺牲舒适和便利为代价,对我来说似乎是陌生的。整个夏天都在习近平’一个,我想探讨这个概念:为什么是白色?这种痴迷是源于历史文化实践,还是源自更多的西方和国际化的欲望? 我的任务是发现这些女性如何保持较浅的肤色,以及为什么。

“Bai fu mei” is a term used in 中国 meaning women who are 白色, rich and beautiful. The male term is “gao fu shuai”或又高又富帅。

My first experience with the desire to maintain 白色 skin was wandering the beauty isles of Karrefour in quest of one product: moisturizer. However, I encountered an obstacle; every single moisturizing product was “whitening”. My friends and I had no idea what 白色ning products were. We were afraid they were skin bleaching, or would be as potent as Western self-tanners, leaving me with a ghostly face. 经过大约二十分钟的搜索,我终于找到了商店中唯一的非美白保湿剂:一种花香,油腻,价格过高的混合剂。

在试图辨别我的保湿霜是否正在美白的同时,漫游美丽小岛的众多员工之一抓住了我的朋友,将她拉到产品上,确保在这里可以消除她脸上的黑斑。通过“black spots”她的意思是雀斑。我的朋友试图告诉女人她喜欢雀斑,并希望保留它们,但是,女人向她保证,没有雀斑,她会更加美丽。产品岛的这种经验使我对美白产品这个新世界充满了兴趣,而以前我对这些产品并不了解。

海南海滩

美国和中国的女性沙滩装

My second experience with the desire to maintain 白色 skin was in Hainan, 中国. Hainan is a tropical island just south of mainland 中国 that serves as the “中国夏威夷”。当我4月到达时,天气又湿又热,但是女人似乎穿着冬天的衣服。我看到到处都是穿着长裤和裙子的妇女,带着雨伞在街上闲逛。这是我第一次看到个人遮阳伞,这个想法震惊了我。

但是,最令人震惊的是沙滩装。 男装’女士的泳衣包括泳裤或纯棉内裤,而女士则穿着街头服装游泳,从短裤和T恤到牛仔裤和长袖衬衫。 穿泳衣的少数女性穿着单件裙装。大多数女人宁愿不去水中,在巨大的保护伞下远距离欣赏水。起初我以为避免比基尼是一个身体形象的问题,但我很快了解到,这也可以防止阳光暴晒,这就是为什么海滩直到下午四点后才被人抛弃的原因。

“我们在海滩上看到没有伞的著名美国人的照片,一些女孩认为他们没有’也不想要伞”

The 白色ning products coupled with sun aversion caught my interest. What are these 白色ning products, how to they work, and why do women use them? 有什么社会压力比想要穿泳衣享受大海或穿着背心和短裤在街上逛街的欲望更强大? 我这几个月住在living ’我通过研究,访谈和观察相结合的方式探索了这个主题。 How do you obtain 白色 skin and why is it beautiful?

I began my study by researching 白色ning products. I soon realized that Chinese girls, my roommate in particular, use a plethora of products to maintain fair skin. My roommate uses products such as Dove Natural White moisturizer and Garnier Aqua Defense 白色ning face masks. In total, I catalogued eight 白色ning products ranging from moisturizers and masks to lotion and toner. 最令人惊讶的方面是,其中许多产品都来自我认可的品牌。 I assumed that only Asian brands would create 白色ning products, but it is mainly Western product brands that are cashing-in on this Asian standard of beauty. Many Chinese girls also use a foundation that is either green in color or has green undertones to cancel out their 黄色 skin undertones and make skin appear fairer.

白色ning advertisement 泰国

Skin 白色ning advertisement in 泰国

One of my main interests about these 白色ning products was how, exactly, they 白色n skin. I soon learned that there are two types of 白色ners: hydroquinone, and AHA or fruit acid. 根据 美国有线电视新闻网, hydroquinone is a very serious 白色ning agent and is either banned or regulated in most countries. These 白色ners chemically suppress melanin production, and are normally prescribed by doctors to treat hyper pigmentation. Hydroquinone 白色ners are either banned or require a prescription because they can create long term problems if used improperly. 如果使用了一年以上,对苯二酚会导致皮肤斑块,皮肤变红,甚至使黑斑恶化。

Most over the counter 白色ners use either AHA or fruit acid to 白色n skin. AHA stands for alpha hydroxyl acid, which comes from the sugars in plants, while fruit acid is found in acidic fruit. 这些产品可通过剥落死皮细胞,滋润皮肤,疏通毛孔并改善肤色和质地来减轻皮肤色泽。 这意味着通过重新生长新的皮肤细胞,可以去除皮肤顶层的所有棕褐色。只要AHA和水果酸的酸性不足10%,而含有或建议使用SPF,它们每天就可以安全使用。

太阳伞

我在夕的太阳伞’an

Aside from 白色ners, there are many other ways Chinese women can keep their skin from tanning. When I first arrived in Xi’一个,我注意到几乎每个女人都拿着个人的太阳伞。这些雨伞已被纳入Xi的日常时尚中’一个女孩,有着鲜艳的色彩,火花,蕾丝和花朵。 带着太阳伞,无论身在何处,女孩几乎总是处于阴影中。 我很想知道太阳伞在日光照射方面是否有所不同,所以我购买了自己的雨伞并随身携带了好几天。我发现单个遮阳伞确实有助于使太阳远离面部和胸部,这不仅可以防止晒黑或晒伤,而且可以使单个人保持凉爽,类似于站在阴凉处。

遮阳伞是在阳光下遮挡皮肤最流行的方法,但许多中国女性还使用其他物品。例如,有些女人喜欢穿着覆盖手臂和腿的长衣服,而另一些女人在开车时则要戴防紫外线手套。有些妇女甚至在开车时或在户外行走时穿着白色的可拆卸袖子。大型的檐板在老一辈中也很受欢迎。

防晒臂套

我的司机保护她的手臂免受阳光照射

我还注意到,许多女人似乎在晚上购物。白天空无一人的服装店在晚上很热闹。虽然我最初以为可能是因为这些女人都需要白天工作,但在与许多中国女孩交谈之后,我了解到中国女人有意在一天中最热的时候不要离开家,以避开阳光。 在所有接受采访的年轻中国妇女中,超过一半的人声称她们试图避免长时间在户外走动,直到下午四点或五点以后以防止晒黑。 大多数人表示,这样做更加方便,因为不再需要太阳伞。

经过研究 the many ways Chinese women stay 白色, it was important for me to discover why. Through interviews, many Chinese girls informed me that light skin has always been considered beautiful in 中国, and though historical research I found this to be true not only for 中国, but also for 日本 and Korea as well. 根据 Marilyn August in her 文章, “亚洲躁狂症美白”传统上,深色皮肤属于在外面工作的人。 Those who were 白色 were the ones who could afford to be inside, rather than toiling all day in the sun。因此,洁白的皮肤是美感理想中的一种地位象征。

白富美

我的白芙美朋友Suzy

根据玛丽安妮·布雷(Marianne Bray)的文章“皮肤深:渴望变白”, Chinese women historically ground up pearls and swallowed them to keep their skin 白色, while across the sea, 日本ese women used powder to make their skin appear chalk-white, most notably Geishas, a symbol of the ideal standard of beauty in 日本. Anna Park, associate director at an Asian women’加利福尼亚的健康与生活方式杂志 评论 that this quest for 白色ness has been present long before western influence, “如果您看那些被认为在中国或日本很美的旧照片或旧画,他们的脸都是苍白的,”.

“si si wen wen”- a woman with 白色 skin who is very polite. When she laughs she doesn’t make a big noise.

我采访的几篇文章和许多中国女孩都提到一句古老的中国谚语“One 白色 covers up one hundred ugliness”。这句话及其背后的思想在当今的现代社会中仍然存在, the belief being that not only will 白色 skin make you beautiful, it will also cover up other flaws you may have。在《洛杉矶时报》文章中 美丽与漂白,住在洛杉矶的一名中国妇女评论了另一句中国话:“si si wen wen”用来形容一个女人的短语“with 白色 skin and is very polite, and when she laughs, she doesn’t make a big noise”. She went on to describe that 白色 is seen as feminine, meaning a delicate woman who does not need to toil in the sun.

Currently, 白色ness is still used as a status symbol for Chinese women. Not only does it help distinguish city women who work in offices and can carry around umbrellas, from country women who need to work in the sun all day, the purchasing of 白色ning products also distinguish the wealthy from the poor.

美容产品(尤其是在中国)非常昂贵,只有某些人能负担得起使用它们的费用。例如,根据我接受采访的一位女性的说法,许多中国女孩每晚使用的美白口罩每包五个口罩大约十美元。即使对于美国人,更不用说中国妇女了,这也是一大笔钱。她还告诉我,口罩不是一个昂贵的品牌,根据质量和品牌的不同,这些口罩的价格可能成倍增长。

“白皙的皮肤意味着高级”

居住在洛杉矶的美籍华裔整形医生Sun博士经常对他的中国顾客进行激光皮肤治疗,以减轻皮肤负担,“我认为这些女性会在购买Louis Vuitton包的过程中看到很多美白现象,” he said in an 洛杉矶时报专访. 一些中国女性甚至愿意花1000美元购买“mesofacial”漂白处理。 There even seems to be a hierarchy within 白色ning treatments. One woman interviewed by the LA Times states that she never buys the very cheap 白色ners because sometimes they can leave your face and neck different colors, and people can see that it is “not your real color.”她还说“皮肤白皙意味着上等”, even in today’s society.

晒伤中国

这就是当你可以’在中国找不到防晒霜

These quotes and interviews from real Chinese women show that the issue of class is still present in the image of 白色 skin. White skin is not only beautiful, but also shows that women are delicate, feminine and wealthy. 无论是居住在西安的年轻女性’an, or forty-year-old Chinese women living in Los Angeles, the idea that 白色 is beautiful, expensive, delicate and luxurious is an idea that has permeated all of Chinese society.

“One 白色 covers up one hundred ugliness”

通过一系列的采访,我想发现习近平的年轻男女’an think about 白色 skin as a symbol of beauty in modern society today. Every person interviewed agreed that 白色 skin is more beautiful, but most could not explain why, making comments like “It’s obvious”. 当被鼓励提供更深入的解释时,许多人说“boys like 白色 girls” or, “my mom and friends tell me I need to be 白色r.” Most also quoted “One 白色 covers up one hundred ugliness,” explaining that 白色 skin covers up other flaws.

一位接受采访的女性告诉我,她与朋友的昵称是“大黄” which means “Big Yellow,” because she is the largest and has the darkest skin. She said that her friends are always encouraging her to keep out of the sun because it will make her more beautiful. Her mother, who also has a darker complexion, buys her 白色ning masks and the two of them use them together every night when she is home.

“When I see a girl who is 白色, I think she is clean and showers a lot, but when I see a girl with dark skin I might think that she is dirty and she doesn’t shower very often”

但是,大多数女孩认为压力来自于给男孩留下深刻印象的压力。 Every girl interviewed felt that all boys preferred 白色 girls, while the color of men’皮肤没关系。 当我采访习近平的年轻人时,这种情绪得到了证实。’an. Every male I interviewed told me that girls with 白色 skin were more beautiful, usually saying that they appeared more feminine and lady-like.

我采访的一个十七岁男孩告诉我,有些人认为肤色较深的女孩较贫穷。他向我保证他不认同这一信念,但也告诉我, “When I see a girl who is 白色, I think she is clean and showers a lot, but when I see a girl with dark skin I might think that she is dirty and she doesn’t shower very often.” The main reason Xi’一个女孩关心自己的肤色是为了吸引男孩,并带有诸如“棕褐色的女孩看起来很脏,” it’s no wonder that some girls will pay large amounts of money for 白色ning creams and masks.

中国太阳伞

北京的太阳伞

我也认为发现重要 if Western culture has influenced this desire to be 白色. Through research and interviews I learned that if anything, Western influences have done the opposite. 接受采访的女性中有一半告诉我,西方名人使女孩更容易晒黑皮肤,因为目前西方人晒黑美女的趋势。 我采访过的一个女孩告诉我,“我们在海滩上看到没有伞的著名美国人的照片,一些女孩认为他们没有’也不想要伞。”

在《洛杉矶时报》对一位居住在洛杉矶的中国妇女的采访中,这位妇女说,她对加利福尼亚制革文化感到震惊。她说她很快意识到美中两国的美理想不同,“当您看到较暗时,您认为它们非常丰富。他们有船。他们有足够的时间去海滩。” 她丈夫然后说,美国女性晒黑是可以的,因为“It’是运动的一部分”。这表明中国人的美感理想与西方价值观完全不同。 尽管美国女性由于运动能力而晒黑是可以接受的,但大多数中国男人和女人都喜欢传统的,浅肤色,娇小和女性化的美感。.

Skin 白色ning 中国

我和我的中国朋友在烧烤场

在我采访的所有女孩中,似乎没有人认为浅色的皮肤是美丽的象征,它与西方有任何关系。’的历史作为原因。根据Wagatsuma弘(Hiroshi Wagatsuma)的文章“日本对肤色的社会认知”,日本人和中国人很少称自己的皮肤为“yellow”,传统上使用术语“white” and “black”定义他们的肤色范围。 这意味着亚洲的概念“white”白种人皮肤不浅;这是他们自己肤色最轻的变化.

In conclusion, the conception of 白色 skin as the beauty standard is a Han Chinese ideal that stems from a deep history within most East Asian countries. This beauty obsession is purely Chinese, and is not affected by Western culture. If anything, the Western beauty ideal of tan Caucasians gives some young Chinese women an excuse to let their skin tan naturally. In terms of 白色ning products, many over the counter products such as lotions, creams and masks are safe to use on a daily basis, containing plant or fruit acids that work to brighten skin and protect it from the sun.

中国的白皮肤不仅是美丽的理想,也是身份的象征。只有那些有能力避免日晒或购买昂贵的美白产品的人才能保持皮肤白皙。最后,今天不是’的年轻女性一直延续着这种美丽的理想,但是老一辈和男人们。在当今看来对男人有吸引力的能力’社会似乎是当今美白趋势的推动力’s younger women.

尽管这看起来很奇怪和陌生,但对于美国社会和晒黑来说也可以这样说。许多年轻女性购买自晒黑剂,烫金粉,然后在阳光下躺上几个小时,今天看起来更有吸引力’s modern society. As I started this project, the idea of skin 白色ning was strange and alien to me. I assumed Chinese girls were bleaching their skin 白色 with chemicals, while simultaneously letting their desire to remain 白色 inhibit them from enjoying a normal, free life. 中国女孩穿着街头服装游泳,带遮阳伞,白天尽量不出门,这似乎是现代的绑脚方式,抑制了自由自然的生活方式,以保持皮肤白皙。

However, after interviewing and talking with many young Chinese men and women I began to discover that the quest to remain 白色 is not as foreign as I originally thought. Many of the skin 白色ning products are healthy and good for your skin, and the rigorous application of SPF shields Chinese women from skin cancer. 虽然带着太阳伞并试图在下午呆在室内似乎很极端,但这些方法比在晒黑床上自焚要健康得多。 总的来说,这个项目使我对中国文化有了新的认识和接受。尽管我不同意许多皮肤较黑的女孩所具有的负面自我形象,但我现在理解并尊重中国’s culture of “whiteness”并意识到这与我在美国的文化并没有太大不同。

外国人与当地人桂林

中国桂林的新朋友

你有什么感想?是“百福美”真的和西方有很多不同’s tanning obsession? 

如果你’在寻找有关我对中国美容规范的个人经历及其感觉的博客文章 在中国被认为既美丽又胖,请务必查看我的博客文章  I’m a Chinese Beauty Anomaly.

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关于里歇尔

外籍人士,旅行者和辛辣美食爱好者,最近几年我在中国生活并在亚洲旅行。在业余时间,我喜欢莎莎舞,逛夜市和用街头小吃塞满我的脸。

14 评论 on “白富美:深入了解中国人对白皙皮肤的追求

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  3. 这不好。所有类型的皮肤和特征都很漂亮。为什么存在理想?它’当您真正看到它们时,甚至都不是真的。中国人民应该真正减少美丽和财富。他们应该促进品格而不是美。在白富美(美丽,富裕,美丽)’没有字符提及,也没有’做好自我形象。它们中的两个与外表有关,就像男同性恋者(高,富,帅)。在14亿人口中,只有一部分会富裕。地位和美丽甚至如何融合在一起?它可能是但就像一个人想要成为的理想。有来自贫穷和富裕家庭的美丽女人。我不’不要以为所有漂亮的女孩都是白皙的皮肤(白皙,富有或美丽),’t.

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  5. The average Chinese has brown skin, however the middle class and the rich are really obsessed with 白色 skin, from bleaching their skin in a daily basis to wearing “wacky”为了保护自己免受日晒的衣服…
    亚洲手术,旨在改变他们的眼睛,鼻子和脸部的整体形状,试图实现这一目标太过分了“white”看。从来没有像中国这样的种族主义者…看到他们如何相处真的很恶心。
    我真的希望有人能告诉他们,无论他们做什么,他们都不是,他们’ll never be 白色.

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